Articles by: Stacy Vernon
A properly planned, executed and maintained food sanitation program is vital to the success of any operation. So why can sanitation be such a challenge for many organizations?
The challenges often occur because of these three main reasons.
(1) Sanitation responsibility usually falls under two different departments: Operations and food safety. Operations is normally responsible for the actual execution of cleaning and sanitizing while food safety is in charge of the verification and validation of the overall effectiveness of the sanitation program.
(2) Sanitation happens on an off shift or weekends and can be an area with the highest turnover of personnel within the organization.
(3) Sanitation managers usually have limited time and budget, so being as efficient and productive in their efforts is crucial.
How does one overcome these challenges? Since food sanitation is an essential prerequisite program for food safety and is a regulatory requirement [reference 9 CFR part 416 and 21 CFR Part 117.135 (c) 3], it is necessary to find solutions. An effective sanitation program is complex and based on science, not just a simple “does it look clean” inspection. Many elements such as waste management, facility and equipment sanitary design, master cleaning schedule, and proper cleaning tool/equipment play a role in the overall sanitation of the facility. However, a sanitation program is only effective if the people executing understand its importance and are willing to use it and make necessary adjustments as needed.
Develop and Document Procedures
Organizations must develop, document, implement and maintain procedures for cleaning every material in their facility on their master cleaning schedule. This includes every piece of equipment, utensils, floors, walls, ceilings, overheads, warehouse, etc. Then they must also determine at what frequency cleaning needs to be completed.
When developing procedures, validation needs to be conducted to ensure that potential health risk equipment is being cleaned and sanitized effectively. Particularly equipment that runs both allergen and non-allergen products to avoid allergen cross-contact.
Implement Food Sanitation Program
Once the policies and procedures are created, it is now time to implement. A critical part of implementation is spending the necessary time educating workers. Each worker must be educated on the documented procedures, how to properly clean (seven steps of sanitation), explaining where problems may exist and the whys behind sanitation. This is needed to encourage a desire in personnel to protect the consumer and company brand. Investing time in personnel that hold a valuable role in the overall organization’s health will aid in building a positive food safety culture and overall company culture. This in return can lead to better employee retention.
Lastly, an essential element of maintaining the food sanitation program is conducting verification activities. This will ensure the program stays on track and people continue to do what is defined in the written procedures. Conduct direct observations, evaluate and then make the necessary improvements. Oftentimes employees need continuous reminders of simple things they need to follow to ensure effective cleaning. It may be something as simple as not laying water or foamer nozzles on the floor or providing the right amount of mechanical action to loosen soils.
Sanitation must not be viewed as a disruption in the process, but as a fully planned, managed and measured activity that is viewed with the same structure as everyday production. If any part is conducted incorrectly or not fully completed, the consequences can be devastating to the company brand and potentially the consumers. But when sanitation is conducted properly, the end result is a safe and quality product and increased production uptime.
Food Sanitation Resources
Get to know our food team! Read more about the author, Stacy Vernon, Project Manager and Food Safety Expert.
This past month marked 10 years since the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) was signed into law. It then took four and a half years before the preventative control rules were finalized. Once the preventive control rules were finalized, organizations based on qualifications had up to 3 years to become compliant with the new rule. That means we are now over 2 years into all companies needing to meet the preventative control regulations.
Most organizations have met their compliance deadlines and of those, certain organizations qualified for exemptions and have modified requirements. But, as their organization grows and their sales surpass that qualified threshold, they are no longer exempt from certain requirements of the rule.
Facilities that no longer qualify for exemptions have to implement a hazard analysis, risk-based preventive controls and a supply chain program. A facility producing ready-to-eat (RTE) product that is open and exposed to the environment post lethality, are to consider conducting environmental monitoring in their facility. So what is environmental monitoring and what does it mean to your facility?
What is Environmental Monitoring?
Environmental monitoring is implemented in facilities that produce RTE foods to assess the effectiveness of their good manufacturing practices (GMPs) and sanitation program. This normally involves swabbing various surfaces and areas within the facility for pathogens or indicator organisms and sending those samples to a lab for analysis.
The goal of an environmental monitoring program is to seek out any potential pathogens within the environment and then take appropriate corrective actions to remove the pathogen from the facility to avoid contamination of foods.
Does my facility need an environmental monitoring program?
If your facility is looking to become GFSI certified, GFSI-aligned third party audits typically require environmental monitoring programs to be in place for producers of RTE food that is exposed to the environment post lethality.
FDA however, does leave this decision open to the facility based on their hazard analysis. The Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) does state in summary: The hazard evaluation required must include an evaluation of environmental pathogens whenever a ready-to-eat food is exposed to the environment prior to packaging and the packaged food does not receive a treatment or otherwise include a control measure (such as a formulation lethal to the pathogen) that would significantly minimize the pathogen (Reference 21 CFR 117.130(c)(1)(ii)).
It’s important to know that RTE foods are not processed by the consumer before consumption. As the processor, you want to ensure that there’s no chance the product they are consuming might be contaminated by pathogens from an unclean facility.
How do I implement an environmental monitoring program?
If you have determined that you need or want a program to meet regulatory or third party audit requirements, first take a good look at your sanitation program. Do you feel you have a well-established sanitation program? The environmental monitoring program is a test of your cleaning so, if you feel your sanitation program is lacking, you first want to address the needs of that program.
Then do an assessment of your resources. Do you have the financial and time/personnel resources to commit to carrying out a plan? If there are doubts that you can adhere to the program and be able to respond appropriately to test results, you will need to address those gaps first.
This is an ideal time to consult with an expert to help you understand how to build your program. They will work with you to determine what type of pathogens or indicator organisms should be tested within your facility based on your product and facility design. They can also help you in determining hygienic zoning, quantity and frequency of testing, and understanding what corrective actions will need to be taken based on results. This will ultimately assist you in understand the amount of financial and personnel resources you will need to dedicate to your environmental monitoring program.
My environmental monitoring program is established, now what?
Whether you are in the beginning phases or have been executing an environmental monitoring program for years, what are you doing with the data you gather from test results? Are you just trying to meet your quota of samples and ensuring the results meet specifications as written in the plan or are you analyzing the data to see where changes or improvements can be made? The environmental monitoring program should be treated as a living document that evolves and matures over time. Some best practices for data collection include tending results, site mapping, and strain or whole genome sequencing tracking.
Lastly, the program should be reviewed at least annually by the management and food safety team. Modifications to the program should be happening as needed based on corrective actions, changes in the process or new scientific data available to the industry. This review should take a deeper dive into what the data is telling you. If there are constantly no findings, which is not to be expected, this may indicate that the program isn’t being managed with the seek and destroy mentality. Most auditors will be skeptical of a long standing program that has never had a failure or corrective action.
Environmental monitoring can be a useful tool to understand what is happening in your facility and the risk associated to product. Ensure it is working for you and doesn’t become just another program you have to have. If implemented and analyzed properly, it should tell the story of your facility’s sanitation program.
Interested in learning more about our environmental monitoring services? Contact us through our website.
Smaller food businesses often have challenges obtaining prime shelf space in the retail market. Just think how many options there are in the grocery store you visit most frequently. As a smaller business with a great product, how can you get on the shelf by other competing products?
It’s not as simple as convincing the buyer of how great your product is. That’s only a small stepping stone to potentially get conversations going. Once a buyer is interested, they are going to provide you with a long list of requirements that your company will need to meet prior to further consideration.
At the top of that list will be food safety requirements and usually GFSI certification will be listed. After all, retail stores have to ensure the products they’re selling are safe for their customers. In reality, the likelihood of retailers investing time and resources in pulling recalled products off their shelves is minimal (which, in return, you as the business owner will most likely be responsible for covering those costs).
According to myGFSI.com over 150,000 GFSI-recognized program certificates have been issued in 162 countries and GFSI requirements are increasingly being required as a prerequisite to doing business with other manufactures or retail stores.
But how does one become GFSI compliant?
- Select a Program
- Decide which GFSI recognized certification program best meets your product needs. Is it SQF, BRCGS, FSSC 22000, Primus GFS or another approved program? Your future clients may also drive which program you choose. Then obtain a copy of your selected program’s standards.
- Conduct a Gap Assessment
- Review your food safety programs and those required by the standard. Identify all gaps that need to be filled.
- Prepare for Audit
- Review all current programs and build and implement missing programs identified in gap assessment to meet the standard. Utilize outside resources where needed.
- Select a Certification Body for Audit
- Identify a certification body that is certified to audit against your selected program. Contact them to discuss and begin the certification process.
- Maintain Audit Certification
- Ensure programs are maintained and improved upon yearly to meet the requirements. Conduct recertification audit before expiration of certificate.
Obtaining certification can be a lengthy process depending on how many gaps were identified in your initial gap assessment. It takes the entire management team to be onboard to make the process successful, but with successful completion of the certification process, it can open the door to many possibilities.
CIFT offers a complimentary GFSI assessment with no strings attached.